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The Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Διμοκρατία) is a country located on the island of Cyprus. The two main and official languages in the Republic of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish. The island of Cyprus is divided into three parts - the Republic of Cyprus (a member of the EU), the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (which has no official international recognition outside of Turkey) and the British military bases of Akrotiri and Decelia.

Cyprus has been inhabited since the dawn of human civilization. It was ruled by Rome, Ancient Greece, Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, Venice in the different periods of its history. The influence of these cultures can be seen in the artifacts and artwork found. The island is extremely rich in historical sights – Paphos Castle, the excavations of a complex of ancient villas, the Tombs of the Kings, Christian basilicas, ancient pagan temples, fortifications and Neolithic settlements.

One of the first settlers on the island were the Mycenaeans and Phoenicians (1050 – 600 BC), and later Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians (700 – 475 BC) also settled there. The Greeks were the last to settle there.

In the Middle Ages, the Crusaders established themselves there, and captured the island on June 1, 1191. The offensive was led by Richard the Lionheart. The Kingdom of Cyprus, one of the Crusader states, was founded.

In 1271, Cyprus was attacked by the Mamluks, but they were stopped at Limassol.

In 1570, the island was under Ottoman control. The Ottomans abolished the existing feudal system and implemented the millet system, where non-Muslim nations were ruled by their own religious authorities.

Until 1960, the island was a colony of Great Britain, after which it gained independence. There are still two operational military bases on the island under UK jurisdiction.

On October 1, 1960, Cyprus gained independence from Great Britain. The first president of the republic was Archbishop Makarios III (1913 – 1977), who united ecclesiastical and secular power. In 1963-1964 there were riots organized by Greek nationalists. In 1964, the bases of the UN peacekeeping troops were located in the country, whose mission continues to this day. On July 20, 1974, Turkish troops landed, after the pro-Greek coup organized by the colonels' regime, with the aim of joining Greece, and thus set foot on the northern coast of the island. In 1983, Turkish Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash founded the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

The nature of Cyprus is a combination of mountains and plains. There are two main mountain ranges – Pentadactylos in the north and Troodos in the central and south-eastern part of the island. Between them stretches the fertile plain of Mesaoria. Ten percent of the territory is used for pasture. In the past, the island was covered with forests, but today they have been cut down and replaced by maquis and hardwood coniferous forests.

The climate is subtropical and Mediterranean, with mild winters and dry, hot summers. There is no rain in summer and little precipitation in winter.

based on material on Wikipedia

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