Tunisia is a country with an ancient history. There are preserved monuments of the Athenian (35 - 10 thousand years BC), Ibero-Maurosian (10 thousand thousand BC) and Capsic culture. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Libyan tribes. From the 12th century BC the Phoenicians established their colonies here, among which Carthage, the center of a great slave-owning state, was dominant.
The city-state of Carthage was located on the site of present-day Tunisia. It was conquered by the Roman Empire as a result of the Punic Wars. In 534, Tunisia came under Byzantine rule. In the 7th century it was included in the Arab Caliphate, which connects the country with the centers of Islamic civilization. After periods of relative calm and destructive invasions in the 16th century, Tunisia was conquered by the Spaniards and later incorporated into the Ottoman Empire (1574). Established in 1705, the Husseinid dynasty created an independent state. In 1881, France occupied Tunisia and turned it into its colony. From the end of the 19th century, a national liberation movement was born in Tunisia and the first national organizations emerged. From November 1942 to May 1943 the country was occupied by German troops. After the Second World War, an active independence movement developed in Tunisia, and in 1951 an armed struggle against the colonizers began. In June 1955, under pressure from the intensifying national liberation struggle, France granted Tunisia internal independence. On September 14, 1955, the first national government was formed, and the legal activity of political parties and mass organizations was resumed. A new agreement was signed on 20 March 1956, giving Tunisia full independence. In 1963, France completely liberated the country by withdrawing its troops from the Bizerte military base. On July 25, 1957, the Constituent Assembly proclaimed Tunisia a republic. Habib Bourguiba has been elected president. The government is taking a course to overcome economic backwardness and dependence on France. The basis of the domestic political course is the doctrine of "Destur socialism", which includes the concepts of national unity, absence of class struggle, harmony and cooperation between all strata of society. In practice, after 1969, the course turned right.
The state system of Tunisia is a republic.