Montenegro (Montenegrin: Montenegro, Crna Gora, "Black Mountain") is a country on the Balkan Peninsula. It borders Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the West, Serbia to the Northeast, Kosovo to the East and Albania to the South. It has access to the Adriatic Sea. The state, administrative capital and largest city is Podgorica (200,000 inhabitants), and the historical capital of the country is Cetinje. Its area is 13 812 km², of which 13 605 km² land and 207 km² water area.
The lands of present-day Montenegro are inhabited by the Illyrians. They later became part of the Roman Empire under the name of Prevalitania, and then from Byzantium (395). During the Great Migration, Slavs and Avars settled here, mixing with the local Dalmatian population. The principality of Dukla is created.
For most of its history, Montenegro has been an independent principality ruled by several dynasties. Until the 14th century it was called Zeta, but then it was known by its current name.
In 1499 the principality was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Its power in the Montenegrin lands is not strong. The difficult mountainous terrain and the remoteness from Istanbul do not allow the exercise of control. On July 13, 1878, the country gained international recognition of its independence.